Tackling the Case Interview

“Case study interviews put you in the driver’s seat: you’re given a real business problem to work through and solve. The logical reasoning you use to work through the case is just as important as the conclusions you reach” (The University of Sydney, 2019)

Every year, consulting firms get hundreds of applications and the human resource team will select those who have the skills to communicate why they are a candidate worth taking a chance on. During this stage, those selected come from many different types of educational backgrounds. However, one underlying feature across all applications is the same: all applicants have the ability to do the job. This leaves consulting firms with one other main question: can they and how will they do it?

A common trademark in the consulting recruitment process is the case study interview. A case study concerning a business problem and scenario is given to an applicant or group of applicants to work through. The case study is designed to mimic the work management consultants do for their clients and therefore showing the interviewer how the applicant might perform for the firm (The University of Sydney, 2019).

What should I expect?

The goal of the case interview is to assess whether the applicant can work in a designated time frame to solve a case and come to a logical conclusion. Cases may be given verbally or in writing, but applicants will need to have the ability to communicate their strategies and assumptions clearly.

The type of case will vary depending on the employer and the role that the applicant has applied for. Common types of cases include:

  • Numeracy scenarios: During this case study, applicants will be asked to estimate figures.
  • Lateral thinking scenarios: This could include coming up with creative suggestions and methods in relation to a particular issue.
  • Interpretations of pictorial information: This could include analysing certain graphs or charts.
  • Corporate and business strategies: This can include examining profitability, growth opportunities, investment strategy or performance improvement (The University of Sydney, 2019).

Practice, practice, and practice

The case study provides an opportunity for applicants to demonstrate problem-solving skills in real-time and does not require extensive knowledge of specific industries or processes. A given case study will have several credible solutions (Accenture, 2018). The consulting firm is really assessing the applicant’s questions and thought-process and how they would communicate with clients in the future (The Boston Consulting Group, n.d.).

In order to get the best out of your case study, preparation is a key element. There are many different case study examples online. Having a run through different types of issues and how they are structured could help you be less overwhelmed on the day. Becoming familiar with how to read or pick out the important information in a case study will provide you with more time on the day to actually put an answer together.

Public speaking is another useful skill, and one to start practising well before the recruitment process even begins. Keep your mind open and flexible to different opportunities. This can be done by joining clubs, tutoring, or even just participating in seminars. This experience will help you in the case interview by making you familiar with the best way to structure arguments and statements in a clear and succinct way.

Advice for the day

There are no magic formula to perfectly solve a case study, however, there are some common tips that you should keep in mind before stepping into the interview room:

  • Listen to the interviewer and ask questions:Take time to align your thinking, ask clarifying questions and communicate your line of reasoning to your interviewer. Do not be afraid to take notes along the way.
  • Generate a hypothesis and explore options creatively: Make sure to state your hypothesis. Treat your interviewer as a client (Deloitte US Careers, n.d.).
  • Structure the problem and form a framework:It is important to take a moment to think about the case in order to gain perspective. Having a clear structure will help you to organise your individual points and clarify your analysis.
  • Think before speaking:Don’t jump to conclusions too fast.
  • Focus on high-impact issues: Make sure that you are creating value for your ‘client’ (The Boston Consulting Group, 2019).

Overall, going into the case interview, remember that the firm is less concerned with your solution than in your approach to solving the case, your ability to navigate challenges, and how you present yourself (Brianne Turk, n.d.).

Celine Smith is a student at Victoria University of Wellington completing a conjoint degree in Law and Commerce.  Conducting research for the School of Information Systems, she is invested in obtaining a career that advances information technologies.

Image: Pexels

Reference List

Accenture-FY19-Case-Workbook-One-Accenture-Consulting.pdf. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.accenture.com/t20180913T100614Z__w__/us-en/_acnmedia/Careers/PDF-14/Accenture-FY19-Case-Workbook-One-Accenture-Consulting.pdf

Case Interview Tips | Deloitte US Careers. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www2.deloitte.com/us/en/pages/careers/articles/join-deloitte-careers-case-interview-tips.html

Case Study Interview Tips | Graduate Jobs, Internships & Careers Advice – Inside Careers. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.insidecareers.co.uk/career-advice/case-study-interview-tips/

Case study interviews. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://sydney.edu.au/careers/students/applying-for-jobs/interview-tips/case-study-interviews.html

How to tackle consulting case study interviews – GradAustralia. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://gradaustralia.com.au/consulting/how-to-tackle-consulting-case-study-interviews

So You Didn’t Do a Consulting Internship

Hypothetically, the fastest way to secure a consulting role after higher education is to do a consulting internship and then get a full time offer, or transition into another consulting offer with the ability to demonstrate you know what consulting is about. Yet, just because you didn’t do a consulting internship this past summer doesn’t mean the odds are against you. It does mean that you have to be smart about how you craft your story to sell yourself for a consulting role.

Let’s begin by understanding that there are many reasons why someone who wants to acquire a consulting role may not have done a consulting internship during the summer. The widely accepted premise of higher education is that it is a time for students to learn and explore academic and career opportunities without penalty. Summer opportunities are therefore a time to test the waters and dive into exciting learning opportunities that would be hard to come after you start working. Personally, I didn’t do a consulting internship because I had a unique opportunity to sample Silicon Valley that probably wouldn’t happen again in my lifetime. I also know people matriculating into consulting that spent last summer doing non-profit work that they were passionate about or undertaking academic research. Pursuing alternative summer activities can be a tremendously valuable experience.

Consequently, a comment that you will naturally get at consulting interviews will be something like:

“I see you did _______ this past summer. Please explain why you want to go into consulting now? What interests you about the practice you are applying for?

Before anyone starts crafting potential responses to this answer, I want to highlight it is always important to be honest. Interviewers generally have a good sense for honesty and can very well smoke out disingenuous responses. That being said, I want to highlight two ways to craft honesty-based answers.

1. Highlight how your non-consulting summer activity is relevant

When there is a legitimate connection between your previous summer activity and the interests of the consulting firm you are applying for, then you should to highlight it. When I interviewed for a technology-oriented consulting role, I was able to highlight that my Silicon Valley exposure gave me insights into how cutting-edge technology companies operate.

2. Highlight transferable consulting skills

There are a lot of skills that matter for consulting. It can be anything from hard technical skills like data analysis to soft skills such as public speaking. The natural thing to do is to come up with a list of relevant consulting skills that you enhanced during your summer internship. However, I recommend going one step further to develop a compelling story. My compelling story was how my exposure to advanced data analysis and customer facing activities allows me to more easily pitch business propositions in the technology space. Another good story I heard was how a person’s past summer internship enhanced their financial modeling skills for complex industry projections.

I think of matriculating into consulting as a stop along a life pathway. Among those who go into consulting, some will be there for a lifetime while some will be there for a short life experience. In any case, there are many ways to get to that consulting nest, and prior consulting experience, although helpful, isn’t necessary. An alternative previous summer activity can be just as compelling, as long as you explain it well, with honesty.

Hall Wang is a dual degree MBA and Master of Public Policy candidate at Georgetown University. He has worked at America’s most innovative companies including Blue Origin and Facebook, as well as having done two combat deployments as a US Army Officer.

Image: Pexels

Driverless technology: a soon-to-be reality?

Back in 1985 when Back to the Future II was first released, we all thought hoverboards and flying cars would be our future. Flash forward over 30 years, much of the tech that the film predicted has come true. But one thing it didn’t get right was the flying cars; instead, the closest thing we have are driverless cars. As exciting as that still sounds, the idea of driverless has been around ever since motorised cars were invented back in the 1920s and realised from at least 2009 when Google launched its self-driving car project, Waymo. Ten years later, autonomous cars are not exactly clogging up the streets. So, how close are we to driverless becoming a reality?

As recently as February, Elon Musk expressed that he was ‘certain’ Tesla cars would be able to drive themselves by the end of this year, albeit with a driver at the wheel, and would be completely autonomous by the end of 2020. Considering Musk’s predictions have fallen short before, this doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll find driverless cars on the road by Christmas. However, it does indicate the industry’s optimism. Waymo, widely considered to be the industry leader for self-driving vehicles, began testing their driverless taxis in Phoenix back in December and have just announced that they are expanding their fleet. From these reports, it seems as if a driverless future is well on its way to becoming a reality. However, Waymo has only tested their cars in a small, suburban area of Phoenix and most still have a driver at the wheel. Moreover, it only has permission to test fully driverless cars (i.e. without a safety driver) on public roads in California and Arizona – far from its vision of providing robo-taxi services across America. There are many hurdles the autonomous car industry must first overcome before they can become commonplace: competition from the traditional car industry, gaining consumer trust and complying with new regulations are just a start.

Traditional carmakers are desperately trying to catch up with tech companies who have had a head start in developing driverless tech. Thus, several joint ventures between usually fierce rivals have been announced or discussed in recent months: BMW and Daimler announced in February that they were investing €1bn in a new joint venture to develop mobility services and autonomous driving and Volkswagen and Ford similarly agreed in January to ‘investigate’ ways of working on autonomous vehicles together. There have been similar partnerships between carmakers and tech firms, such as Toyota working with Softbank and Nvidia, a chipmaker, teaming up with Volkswagen. The advantages of collaborating are clear: it reduces costs, lowers risk and allows carmakers to share in the expertise already gathered by these tech firms, all of which speeds up the time it takes to bring products to market. Neither is the relationship one sided: tech firms need the engineering and manufacturing expertise that only the automobile industry can provide.

There is a strong sense among carmakers that they need to innovate or risk becoming obsolete. Electric cars, ride-sharing and autonomous driving will change how we use cars and it is likely that in the future car ownership will fall significantly, considering the high upkeep costs and the increasing availability of other quick and reliable transport services. The auto industry has recognised that potential value lies in services and not ownership; if the current trend continues, it is likely that soon most people will not buy their own cars but rent or borrow them. As a result, carmakers have started to offer their own mobility services such as Daimler’s Car2Go and BMW’s DriveNow for car sharing. The car industry has already started to show signs of difficulty due to falling demand in China, the world’s largest vehicle market, and the shift away from diesel and petrol cars towards electric: Jaguar Land Rover is cutting 4500 jobs due to a sales slowdown in China and Volkswagen is still dealing with the backlash from its ‘dieselgate’ scandal. There is no longer a choice but to innovate – not only are carmakers facing pressure from driverless disrupters, but both the EU and China have introduced new regulations that will result in steep fines for manufacturers if they don’t meet emissions targets.

Another large obstacle that driverless cars must surmount is gaining consumer trust. After all, what would be the point of making cars that no one will get into? This endeavour has not been helped by reports of accidents involving self-driving vehicles, some of which have been fatal: in March 2018, an Uber autonomous Volvo killed a pedestrian in Arizona. It must be noted that these accidents have occurred in cars with only Level 3 autonomy i.e. with a safety driver in the car. There are five levels of driving automation, ranging from Level 1 (most functions are controlled by the driver but a specific function, like steering or accelerating, can be done automatically by the car) to Level 5 (a fully autonomous system that is equal in ability to a human driver in every driving scenario). Most driverless cars at the moment operate at Level 3, so the car is in control but a human safety driver is present to intervene when required. If fatal mistakes are already happening with a driver at the wheel, at what point can we trust automated systems to completely take over?

Level 3 is also the first point at which full responsibility and legal liability shifts from driver to car, and it is this technicality that has been hardest for car manufacturers to stomach. At the Consumer Electronics Show in January, carmakers boasted driverless tech in driver assistance and safety applications but not in autonomous driving systems – goals which the FT deemed to be ‘less ambitious’ and ‘less controversial’ because they stopped short of handing over full responsibility to the car. The FT article argues that technology was not the limiting factor but rather the regulatory framework, as carmakers were unclear as to what is legal and what isn’t. Regulatory bodies have also recognised this, and in November the Law Commission in the UK launched a three-year consultation to examine likely areas of change to the legal and regulatory framework for automated vehicles. This includes issues of liability, which has been a particular sticking point for many: who does the fault lie with following a driverless car accident – the car manufacturer, the software provider or the driver? Despite legal liability technically passing from the driver to the car at Level 3, Uber has not been held ‘criminally liable’ for the March 2018 accident but the car’s back-up driver potentially faces criminal charges. Until these questions can be answered comprehensively, autonomous cars will not be able to drive on public roads even if they are otherwise fully functional.

One way of getting around regulatory limitations, as we have already seen, is to deploy driverless tech in non-driverless cars. Carmakers have already begun to implement driver assistance services to vehicles, ranging from automatic braking and blind spot detection functions to Tesla’s Autopilot, which can park itself and automatically change lanes. Driverless tech is also being applied to other types of vehicles, such as delivery robots and driverless trucks, whose routes are more predictable and carry less risky cargo and so could be rolled out faster. By introducing driverless technology slowly and in ways that people can interact with on a regular basis, consumer trust can be gradually gained. As the car industry and regulatory bodies start to catch up with self-driving innovation, it won’t be long before driverless cars will be ready for the roads. The only question is, will we be ready for them?

Vivien Zhu is a recent graduate from the University of Oxford, which is where her interest in consulting first developed. She has experience working with consulting firms and in student consultancies and hopes to pass on her knowledge to those who need it.

Image: Pexels

Cybersecurity 101: How to defend against cyber-attacks

Right now, we are surrounded by technology that allows us to access information about anyone and anything with the click of a mouse. Large organisations use technology to store data for accessibility and efficiency but because of this, can be brought to their knees and resort to using pen and paper after a deadly cyber-attack.

In this post, you will learn why cybersecurity is the most critical topic in today’s technology-dependent world and how companies can defend themselves from possible cyber-attacks.

Importance of Cybersecurity

Cybersecurity is important partly because of the huge costs that cyber-attacks can impose on governments, businesses, and consumers. Cybersecurity Ventures, a US research firm, predicts that cyber-attacks “will cost the world $6 trillion annually by 2021, up from $3 trillion in 2015” (PwC, 2018).

So, why is data on devices prone to attack? It is because human-coded software is full of bugs, which create points of weakness that hackers can exploit. Dr Ian Welch, an internet security researcher and Associate Professor at Victoria University of Wellington explains that “one way that these flaws are exploited by attackers is in so-called “drive-by” attacks, where hackers are able to bypass organisational defences, such as firewalls, and directly infect a victim’s computer. This might be done by infecting a website. The goal is to exploit both the trust of … users and bugs in their web browsers to install a virus allowing the hacker access to the organisation’s network” (Welch, 2016). It is difficult to detect infected websites because, according to Dr Welch, as we “develop new defences, attackers develop new attacks, which means we have an ongoing arms race” (Welch, 2016).

Common Methods of Cyber-Attack

There are three extremely common methods that hackers use to attack organisational networks:

1. Phishing

Phishing involves using emails to steal sensitive data like credit card numbers and passwords, or to install malware onto the victim’s device. ‘Whale phishing’ attacks are also becoming more common. This is where the attackers target a prominent employee. This might involve making it look like the email has come from someone within the company. An example is a staff member getting an email that looks like it’s from the CEO which “could ask them to pay an invoice on their behalf or send them private staff details” (CERT NZ, 2019).

2. Malware

Malware refers to malicious software such as spyware, viruses, ransomware and worms. Malware gains access to organisational networks through points of weakness, especially when a user clicks on a deceptive link or email attachment which then installs the malicious software (Cisco, 2018).

3. Zero-day exploits

When developers discover a bug in a software program or operating system, cybercriminals have a window of opportunity to exploit the vulnerability before it is fixed. “Zero-day” refers to the fact that the developers have “zero days” to fix a newly discovered security flaw, and malware that targets the newly discovered vulnerability is called a “zero day exploit” (Norton, 2019).

Defending Against Cyber-Attacks

According to Dr Welch and other sources, there are four critical steps that organisations should follow to defend against cyber-attacks:

1. Seek advice from experts

First, employ someone who can assess where your company stands against potential attacks. What valuable information do you have? How is it currently protected? Ask the cybersecurity consultant to create a cybersecurity plan or guidebook, which you can follow in case you find yourself under attack.

If you are an IT company that creates software, hiring developers to check code can be a good defensive strategy. Dr Welch, through his research, has concluded that human error triggers most attacks. For example, minor bugs such as buffer overflow from not implementing out of bounds exceptions can be used to “manipulate a computer’s memory to subvert or control program execution” (Rouse, 2016).

2. Install software updates

All organisations should run on secure operating systems, at least Windows 10. The National Health Service (NHS) didn’t follow this advice and was hit by a global cyber-attack which infected 300,000 computers. NHS computers were affected by the ‘ransomware’ cyber-attack which demanded money in exchange for locked computer files. Operation and appointment details saved on the computers were impossible to retrieve without paying the ransom and more than 19,000 appointments had to be cancelled. This attack demonstrated the importance of cyber-security; not taking the appropriate measures can have life-threatening consequences. WannaCry, the ransom-ware, targeted computers running on Windows XP and Windows 7, an outdated operating system which Windows no longer supported in terms of security updates (Trendall, 2008).

3. Educate staff

Training employees in the basics of cybersecurity can be done through meetings and by creating a cybersecurity guidebook for your organisation. The guidebook should lay out the steps to follow and information about who to contact in the case of cybersecurity emergencies. Systems can be hacked through outdated software; therefore, employees need to be informed about installing updates and patches for applications as soon as they become available. Employees should be warned not to double click on doubtful links, and should be instructed to create strong passwords (long random phrases which are easy to remember) and change passwords frequently. Employees should also be educated about the significance of cybersecurity and regularly backing up data; ignoring the risks can result in a loss of money and the leak or theft of confidential data.

4. Implement Two Factor Authentication

To protect your customers as well as your own systems, two-factor authentication should be implemented. This is where the user needs to provide details in addition to the password in order to verify their identity. “You can mitigate credential reuse, sophisticated phishing attacks, and many other cybersecurity risks by using 2FA” (CERT NZ, 2019).

Conclusion

Cyber-attacks can compromise customer and employee information, or even prevent the organisation from functioning as in the case of the NHS. Would you ever want to be in a situation where your safety, health, reputation, or livelihood was compromised due to insufficient cybersecurity efforts? Cybersecurity is necessary not just because it can affect a business’s bottom line but because social welfare and personal freedoms are at risk. As a result, business leaders need to make substantial efforts to protect networks from cyber-attack as well as to guarantee data privacy.

Fariha Tasheem is currently a student at Victoria University of Wellington studying a Bachelor of Science majoring in Computer Science and Bachelor of Commerce majoring in Finance and Management. She enjoys reading, baking, coding and spending time with her family.

Image: Pexels

References

CERT NZ. (2019). Top 11 cyber security tips for your business. Retrieved from https://www.cert.govt.nz/businesses-and-individuals/guides/cyber-security-your-business/top-11-cyber-security-tips-for-your-business/

CERT NZ. (2019). Protecting your business from spear phishing and whaling. Retrieved from https://www.cert.govt.nz/businesses-and-individuals/guides/cyber-security-your-business/protecting-your-business-from-spear-phishing-and-whaling/

Cisco. (2018). What Are the Most Common Cyber Attacks? Retrieved from https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/security/common-cyberattacks.html

Fortune. (2006). These Types of Hackers Are Driving Cyber Attacks Now. Retrieved from http://fortune.com/2016/03/21/cyber-attacks-cybersecurity/

Norton. (2019). Zero-day vulnerability: What it is, and how it works. Retrieved from https://us.norton.com/internetsecurity-emerging-threats-how-do-zero-day-vulnerabilities-work-30sectech.html

PwC. (2018).A Practical Method of Identifying Cyberattacks. Retrieved from https://www.pwc.com/m1/en/publications/documents/wgs-cybersecurity-paper-new-updates.pdf

Rouse, M. (2016). What is buffer overflow. Retrieved from https://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/buffer-overflow

Trendall, S. (2008). NHS £150m Microsoft deal will banish Windows XP. Retrieved from https://www.publictechnology.net/articles/news/nhs-£150m-microsoft-deal-will-banish-windows-xp

Welch, I. (2016). Ian Welch: Waging war on hackers a daunting arms race. Retrieved from https://www.nzherald.co.nz/business/news/article.cfm?c_id=3&objectid=11659469

Impact of Data Analytics in Consulting

“Data scientists, fast computers, and advanced software are replacing traditional decision-making processes and disrupting tried-and trusted traditional consulting methodologies, with Big Data being one of the main forces of disruption” (Tras, 2015).

The words “big data” have become a “buzzword” in the business industry. It is a concept that revolutionised old-school industries, gave birth to a new industry, and made improvements to businesses regardless of their size. Improvements from incorporating big data have resulted from its ability to “[help] businesses tap into billions of real-time conversations to make smarter decisions” according to Glenn Finch, a Global Leader of Data & Analytics (Pham, 2015).

Over time, it has become a necessity for the consulting industry to develop frameworks to address critical business problems with the help of big data.

So, how does big data create value for consulting firms?

  1. Data driven decision making: Big data can “improve decision making, minimise risks, and unravel valuable insights that otherwise remain inconspicuous” (Tras, 2015).
  2. Finding valuable insights: Structured and unstructured data sources can uncover patterns and relationships that reveal customer needs, expose system vulnerabilities and improve productivity and performance. Insights can be generated about customers, employees and business processes on a real time basis.
  3. Creating transparency: Value is created when data is made accessible to relevant stakeholders in a timely manner, for example, in manufacturing if data from research and development, engineering and manufacturing is integrated to enable concurrent engineering. This can significantly cut time in the market and improve quality.
  4. Tailoring products to individual needs: Big data allows an organisation to narrowly segment customers. This method is widely used online to accurately and efficiently target customers and sell customised products and services.
  5. Creating new business models, products and services: Big data provides organisations with the opportunity to identify customer demand, spot trends in the market and develop the next generation of products and services (Tras, 2015).

Big data provides organisations with the potential to achieve competitive advantage. However, for organisations to fully benefit from big data they will need to review their decision-making processes, and become more agile and responsive to new insights in order to realise the full value of big data (EY, 2016). According to Ram Sarvepalli, from EY’s Emerging Markets Center, in the modern business environment, data analytics is the key to success: “Data analytics has become key to corporate competitive advantage. The first company to identify emerging demand trends and tailor its operations to delivery can quickly establish itself as the go-to source for particular goods or services” (EY, 2016).

Organisations that have the ability to incorporate real-time data analytics can build a strong competitive advantage. Rajesh Gopinathan, CFO and Vice President of Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), argues that real-time change is transforming corporate decision-making, and that “once you have made that information available instantaneously, business decision-making is happening on the fly” (EY, 2016).

As Laurence Buchanan, EY’s Advisory’s Digital Leader in Europe, Middle East, India and Africa states, “many companies in mature markets have more than twenty years of ingrained cultures, mindsets, business models, ways of working and, of course, technology landscapes that are not necessarily conducive to operating with an agile innovation approach”.

So, how can consulting firms leverage the value of big data more effectively?

  1. Create a responsive decision-making process
  2. Streamline decision-making layers from top to bottom
  3. Act on insights in a timely manner
  4. Coordinate with local levels to act on insights (EY, 2016).

Organisations that have streamlined and become more responsive to real-time insights stand a better chance of surviving in the face of constant digital disruption. It is only by minimising the lag between insight generation, decision-making and implementation that an organisation can capture the real value of big data (EY, 2016). Additionally, in order for the consulting industry to continue adding value for clients, consultants must learn new skills to stay ahead of the digital disruption (Consultancy UK, 2018).

Globally, investment by consulting firms into analytics increased to $43 billion in 2017. This investment was split between developing in-house capability and hiring external consultants. The investment has been a reaction to 91% of partners being convinced that analytics have already generated substantial value for their firms. Digital disruption has become essential to the survival of consulting firms due to its cross-functional impact, proving indispensable to strategy, operations, HR and IT consultants (Consultancy UK, 2018).

Overall, as illustrated by Philip Rowland, a Partner at OC&C Strategy, “for consultancy to remain relevant, the advice and techniques must be more sophisticated than those already [being used by] the client”. This has resulted in consulting firms hiring graduates with knowledge of new tools and techniques that were not previously used by senior consultants such as basic coding and analytics. Moving forwards, it will become increasingly valuable for young consultants to know how to manipulate large datasets and undertake statistical analysis (Consultancy UK, 2018).

Celine Smith is a student at Victoria University of Wellington completing a conjoint degree in Law and Commerce.  Conducting research for the School of Information Systems, she is invested in obtaining a career that advances information technologies.

Image: Pexels

References

How data analytics are changing the consulting industry. (2018, 3 September). Retrieved February 6, 2019, from https://www.consultancy.uk/news/18522/how-data-analytics-are-changing-the-consulting-industry

How is big data analytics transforming corporate decision-making? (2016, July 4). Retrieved February 6, 2019, from https://consulting.ey.com/how-is-big-data-analytics-transforming-corporate-decision-making/

Pham, P. (2015, August 28). The Impacts Of Big Data That You May Not Have Heard Of. Retrieved February 6, 2019, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/peterpham/2015/08/28/the-impacts-of-big-data-that-you-may-not-have-heard-of/

Tras, P. (2015, August 4). (1) Effective use of Big data analysis in consulting business | LinkedIn. Retrieved January 17, 2019, from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/effective-use-big-data-analysis-consulting-business-priyanka-tras/